The following resources[1] can be found on this page. This includes research articles on student feedback.

Research Articles

Student feedback in an international context:

Arthur, L. 2009. From performativity to professionalism: Lecturers’ responses to student feedback. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(4):441-454.

Ashwin, P. 2012. Analysing teaching-learning interactions in higher education. Accounting for structure and agency. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Blair, E. & Valdez Noel, K. 2014. Improving higher education practice through student evaluation systems: Is the student voice being heard? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39(7):879-894.

Boud, D. & Molloy, E. (eds.). 2013. Feedback in higher education. Understanding it and doing it well. London: Routledge.

Boud, D. & Molloy, E. 2013. Rethinking models of feedback for learning: the challenge of design. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 38:6, 698-712.

DOI: 10.1080/02602938.2012.691462

Cathcart, A., Greer, D. & Neale, L. 2014. Learner-focused evaluation cycles: Facilitating learning using feedforward, concurrent and feedback evaluation. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39 (7):790–802.

Douglas, J. & Douglas, A. 2006. Evaluating teaching quality. Quality in Higher education, 12(1):3-13.

Drew, S. & Klopper, C. 2014. Evaluating faculty pedagogic practices to inform strategic academic professional development: a case of cases. Higher Education, 67:349–367.

DOI 10.1007/s10734-013-9657-1

Golding, C. & Adam, L. 2016. Evaluate to improve: Useful approaches to student evaluation. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(1):1-14.

Nair, C.S. & Mertova, P. (Eds.). 2013. Enhancing Learning and Teaching through Student Feedback in Social Sciences. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.

Ruth, D. 2014. Teaching strategy: reflections on professional practice. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(3)254-265.

Ryan, M. 2015. Framing student evaluations of university learning and teaching: Discursive strategies and textual outcomes. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 40(8):1142-1158.

Sadler, D.R. 2010. Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35:5, 535-550.


Schuck, S., Gordon, S. & Buchanan, J. 2008. What are we missing? Problematising wisdoms on teaching quality and professionalism in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 13(5):537-547.

Sutton, P. 2011. Conceptualizing feedback literacy: knowing, being, and acting. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 49, No. 1: 31-40, February.

Student Feedback in Large Classes

Angelo TA and Cross KP (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2ndedition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cooper JL and Robinson P (2000). The Argument for Making Large Classes Seem Small. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 81: 12.

Crouch CH and Mazur E (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics 69: 970-977.


Student feedback in the South African context:

Belluigi, D. Z. 2013. Playing broken telephone with student feedback: the possibilities and issues of transformation within a South African case of a collegial rationality model of evaluation. In Nair, C.S. & Mertova, P. (Eds.). 2013. Enhancing Learning and Teaching through Student Feedback in Social Sciences. Oxford: Chandos Publishing: 1-27.

Bozalek, V., Mitchell, V., Dison, A. & Alperstein, M. 2016. A diffractive reading of dialogical feedback through the political ethics of care. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(7):825-838.

Hassan, S. & Wium, W. 2014. Quality lies in the eyes of the beholder: A mismatch between student evaluation and peer observation of teaching, Africa Education Review, 11:4, 491-511.

DOI: 10.1080/18146627.2014.935000

Leibowitz, B., Bozalek, V., Van Schalkwyk, S. & Winberg, C. 2015. Institutional context matters: The professional development of academics as teachers in South African higher education. Higher Education, 69(2):315-330.

Leibowitz, B., Van Schalkwyk S., Van der Merwe, A., Herman, N. & Young, G. 2009. What makes a ‘good’ first-year lecturer?, in Leibowitz, B., Van der Merwe, A. & Van Schalkwyk, S. Focus on first-year success: Perspectives emerging from South Africa and beyond. Stellenbosch: SUN MeDIA. 255-269.

Nygaard, C. & Belluigi, D.Z. 2011. A proposed methodology for contextualised evaluation in higher education, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36:6, 657-671, DOI: 10.1080/02602931003650037

Petersen, M. 2016. The role of student feedback in university teaching at a research-led university. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Stellenbosch.

Santhanam, E., Ashford-Rowe, K. & Murphy, P. 2017. From student feedback to institutional quality enhancement initiatives that focus on supporting staff and students. CriSTaL, 5, No. 1: 49-66.

doi: 10.14426/cristal.v5i1.96

Sibanda, L., Iwu, C.G., Benedic, O.H. 2015. Factors influencing academic performance of university students. Демографія та соціальна економіка, № 2 (24):103-115.


Sibanda, L., Iwu, C.G., Benedic, O.H. 2015. Academic Success Factors: Implications for Teaching, Learning and Academic Administration, Int J Edu Sci, 10(2): 269-279.

Van Schalkwyk, S., Leibowitz, B., Herman, N. & Farmer, J. 2015. Reflections on professional learning: Choices, context and culture. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 46:4-10.

[1] Dr Melanie Petersen, Student Feedback Co-ordinator at Stellenbosch University has contributed to this list.

Recent Posts

The characteristics of ethical teaching during Remote Teaching and Learning contexts


The shift to Emergency Remote Teaching and Learning (RTL) during the COVID 19 pandemic has forced lecturers to use online platforms such as Blackboard, Teams and other Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) such as WhatsApp.  The rapid change has been unsettling as lecturers anxiously tried to reach their students online. Lecturers had to revisit their teaching methods and focus on creating an online social presence through various activities such as short videos, podcasts, synchronous and asynchronous discussions, and peer and collaborative learning opportunities. Feedback from students shows that they adapted their learning and had to apply different learning strategies.  In the process, challenges and questions arose about the ethics of teaching online.   

Mutual engagement and interaction

Supportive engagement and interaction were essential to lecturers’ online teaching. They paid attention to establishing relations of care and trust with their students.  Feedback from students shows that most lecturers tried to create a caring and nurturing learning environment online. According to the students, lecturers played a supportive role in setting the proper tone and atmosphere during RTL. They displayed the capacity to show their social presence via controlled, yet ubiquitous online communication. The students explained that they were aware of the lecturers’ presence in the online environment.   Lecturers went on to create a nurturing and supportive environment during RTL by using a variety of strategies to engage students in learning activities, such as including synchronous and asynchronous forms of engagement, WhatsApp messaging and  Blackboard.

Generating student-centred learning activities

Our engagement with lecturers shows that student-centred learning activities online is a critical aspect of RTL. A student-centred approach to learning relies on constant dialogue and interaction between lecturers and students and ensures that student learning is at the heart of RTL. Lecturers focused on developing learning activities that cultivate understanding and autonomous learning opportunities. Rather than giving loads of notes and PowerPoints, a strategy of students-centred learning was developing activities that generate independent and critical thinking. Lecturers constructed activities that assist students in asking why and encouraged high order thinking. Too often, lecturers only rely on rote-learning questions and do not ask students to apply the concepts.

Providing peer support opportunities such as tutors and mentors

Remote teaching and learning can lead to students feeling alone in the learning process. What has to be accounted for is that learning is also a social activity and that lecturers have to develop opportunities for students to engage with one another in the learning process. A key feature of RTL is, therefore, providing access to peer learning and support. Some lecturers changed their pedagogical approaches by including peers, tutors and mentors and as part of the learning process. Online tutors and mentors played a crucial role in RTL so that students felt like they were part of a community of learners.  Having regular online tutor sessions allowed students to learn from their peers and to engage in the affective dimensions of RTL. Peer learning was encouraged through pedagogical strategies such as group work and paired learning activities in the online environment.

Extending the resources available to students

While we rely on texts in the traditional classroom, a vital element of RTL is to provide a range of resources for students to learn from such as audio, visual, print and online library resources. RTL forces lecturers to use audio and video as part of their pedagogical strategies. Ironically, print material is essential for students as lecturers fear that not all students would have access to the internet. The various pedagogical approaches resulted in lecturers attending to a broader range of students’ learning styles.

Responsiveness during assessments and ensuring that feedback is prompt

Assessments and feedback is a critical part of the RTL. Assessments always evoke anxiety and stress, and within the RTL context, anxieties about assessments are heightened. Responsiveness during assessments and ensuring that feedback is prompt was central to RTL. The feedback from students showed that students appreciated lecturers who communicated clearly about what to expect from assessments and those lecturers who responded to questions about assessments. For students to learn effectively, feedback after assessments must be prompt and must enable students to improve their work. Lecturers used various platforms to give feedback to students such as Blackboard and WhatsApp.

Utilising ICTs: To WhatsApp or not to WhatsApp?

Lecturers utilised ICTs tools extensively during RTL, and the most widely used tool was WhatsApp. The challenges were related to the style, and the manner of engagement as students would use a casual tone and would sometimes use expletives as part of their interaction with lecturers. Some lecturers did not want to impose themselves on the WhatsApp space and decided that a student representative should be part of the WhatsApp group and would in turn report to the lecturer.

Students studying at home

Factors such as as a noisy learning environment, an unsuitable place to study and learn and living with a large family impacted on RTL. Students also had to deal with psycho-social problems such as the anxiety and fear of not completing the academic year, the fear of COVID-19 and feeling alone while studying and not having the normal support of peers          

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